The Institute of Botany SAS is the largest taxonomic research centre for the taxonomy of vascular and non-vascular plants in the Slovak Republic. It possesses one of the largest herbaria in Slovakia, documenting diversity of vascular and non-vascular plants in Slovakia and adjacent regions. IB SAS has a leading role in national projects such as the multivolume Flora of Slovakia (Flóra Slovenska), the Checklist of Non-Vascular and Vascular Plants of Slovakia, and the Red Lists of Non-Vascular and Vascular Plants of Slovakia. The Institute houses also database of the distribution of plants of Slovakia (DATAFLOS), database of the checklist of non-vascular and vascular plants of Slovakia, database of the chromosome number reports, as well as database of phytocoenological relevés from the area of Slovakia. Currently it hosts also secretariats of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy and the International Organization of Plant Biosystematists.
IB SAS houses the Slovak Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) node and Global Taxonomy Initiative (GTI) national focal point. The Institute participated or still participates as a partner institution in numerous FP5, FP6 and FP7 projects: Euro+Med PlantBase, European Network for Biodiversity Information (ENBI), BioCASE, IntraBioDiv, European Native Seed Conservation Network (ENSCONET), European Distributed Institute of Taxonomy (EDIT), and A Pan-European Species-directories Infrastructure (PESI). In the CIP-ICT project Opening up the Natural History Heritage for Europeana (OpenUp!) IBSAS has a role of the work-package leader.